Patch Rubber Company - Glossary
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GLOSSARY

 
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   Abrasion    The progressive wearing away of a tire by scraping and rubbing.   

Accelerator A chemical which affects the rate of vulcanization of rubber compounds.

Adhesion Bond between two cured or uncured surfaces.

Adhesive An adhesive rubber compound usually dissolved in solvent used to provide building tack and cured adhesion. May be brushed or sprayed on the buffed surface. Some cement may be water-based.

Aging Deterioration or change of physical and chemical properties of rubber by oxidation, heat, or moisture over a period of time.

Airbag An inflated flexible bag used to impart positive pressure on the article being vulcanized.

Air Injection An inspection method using a high-pressure air probe to detect separation in the tire casing.

Air Pressure Force exerted by air within the  tire, expressed in pounds per square inch or bars.

Alignment The adjustment of various parts of the vehicle’s suspension system to ensure proper handling stability and to minimize abnormal tire tread wear.

Ambient Temperature Temperature (F or C) of immediate surroundings, usually room temperature.

Antioxidant A chemical used to retard deterioration due to heat, light, oxygen, or combinations thereof.

Arc A measure of tread surface curvature from shoulder to shoulder.

Aspect Ratio Ratio of cross-section height to width.

Autoclave Kettle A vessel used for vulcanizing rubber products under pressure.

Awl A pointed, round, or flat tool used to probe nail holes and injuries.

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Backing A removable protective material used on the application side of retread rubber and repair materials to preserve cleanliness and tackiness.

Balancing A process to correct for heavy or light areas of a tire.

Banbury An enclosed machine for mixing rubber and compounds.

Band Lugging A method of retreading earthmover tires using hand built-up extruded lugs and autoclave cure.

Bar Measure of pressure in international units. 1 bar = 0.9869 atmosphere = 14.50 psi = 100 kPa.

Base Width A measure of that portion of the tread rubber which joins to the buffed surface of the tire.

Bead The anchoring part of the tire which is shaped to fit the rim; made of high tensile steel wires wrapped and reinforced by the plies.

Bead Area The anchoring part of the tire which is shaped to fit the rim/wheel.

Bead Face / Ledge / Sole The flat portions of the bead area between the heel and toe that contacts the rim/wheel.

Bead Filler Sometimes called an "apex", it is designed to provide stiffness, stability, and durability in the bead area.

Bead Heel The rounded portion of the bead area that contacts the rim/wheel between the bead seat and flange.

Bead Reinforce May be steel, fabric, or a combination of reinforced material to give bead area stability and body ply.

Bead Toe The point portion of the bead area opposite the heel.

Bead Sealing Area The face/ledge/sole and heel of the bead that contacts the rim. With tubeless tires, the bead area seals to the rim and rim flange to retain air.

Bead Seat The flat portion of the rim/wheel on which the bead face/ledge/sole rests.

Bead Separation Separation between components in the bead area.

Bead-To-Bead Measurement The distance from the heel of one bead, straight up at 90, over the crown and down the other side to a position on the heel of the other bead directly opposite the starting point. (Usually on a buffed casing.)

Belt A reinforced cord layer located circumferentially around the tire and under the tread.

Belt Separation Separation of the belts from the plies or tread or from each other.

Bias Ply (Diagonal Ply) A tire construction in which the ply cords extending to the beads are laid at alternate angles substantially less than 90 to the centerline of the tread.

Bias Tire A pneumatic tire in which the ply cords that extend to the beads are laid at angles substantially less than 90 degrees to the centerline of the tread.

Blow A porous condition caused by a loss of pressure of undercure.

Blue Triangle A bulge due to a section repair is allowed not to exceed 3/8" (1cm) in height. A blue triangular label in the immediate vicinity may sometimes identify this bulge.

Body Tire structure excepting tread and sidewall rubber.

Body Ply (pl. plies) Layers of rubber-coated parallel cords extending from bead to bead.

Body Ply Insert An additional layer of rubber on top of the body ply to add to body ply durability.

Bonding The joining of two materials by use of adhesives or vulcanization.

Brand Number A number branded into one or both sidewalls of a tire by the customer for identification purposes.

Breaks A surface opening and/or damage extending into or through the cord.

Buff Contour The specified shape of a buffed area.

Buff Line The dividing line in the cross section of a tire between the buffed surface of the original tire and the new retread rubber.

Buffed Surface A specifically prepared surface of a tire casing or repair area to provide proper texture to help promote adhesion to the new rubber.

Buffed Texture That surface produced by buffing, rasping, or cutting as standardized by the Rubber Manufacturers Association’s Shop Bulletin No. 29 "Standard Buffing Textures - Retreading and Repairing."

Buffer A machine used to rasp the old tread from the casing. A powered rotary rasp provides a clean, even surface for adhesion of the new tread rubber.

Buffing Removal of the previously vulcanized rubber surface using a buffer.

Butyl Rubber A general purpose synthetic elastomer (rubber) produced by copolymerizing isobutylene with small amounts of isoprene. Butyl rubber has a high resistance to chemicals and low permeability to gases. Its permeability to air is 70% better than that of natural rubber and for this reason is superior for tire tubes and for tubeless tire inner liners.

Buzz - Out The removal of material prior to making a repair.

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Cable The fabric or steel strands forming the reinforced structure in the tire.

Calender A multi-rolled machine which impregnates fabric or cord with rubber and/or forms a thin-layered sheet of rubber or other material.

Carbide A hard, metallic material.

Carbide Burr / Cutter / Rasp A rotary cutting tool.

Casing A used tire to which additional tread may be attached for the purpose of retreading.

Cement An adhesive rubber compound usually dissolved in solvent used to provide building tack and cured adhesion. May be brushed or sprayed on the buffed surface. Some cement may be water-based.

Chamber A heated pressurized curing vessel. See also AUTOCLAVE.

Chemical Cleaner A rapid-drying rubber solvent for removing matrix lubricant, dirt, and other foreign material.

Chemical Cure Vulcanization at room temperature activated by chemical agents without the application of heat from an outside source.

Chemical Cure Repair Repair unit activated by a chemical agent.

Chemical Rubber Compound A two-part rubber putty which, when mixed together thoroughly, begins curing at room temperature.

Chemical Rubber Gum An especially compounded repair gum which cures at room temperature by chemical action.

Chemical Vulcanizing Cement (Chemical Cure Cement) Cement which, when used with compatible materials, will produce a chemical cure.

Chlorobutyl Butyl rubber with a chlorine atom bonded to the butyl backbone. Chlorobutyl has  higher air retention and better heat stability.

Circumferential Break A break parallel to the beads in the sidewall area.

Cold Patch Vulcanization at room temperature activated by chemical agents without the application of heat from an outside source.

Compound A thorough mixture of natural and/or synthetic rubbers with various ingredients designed for each tire part.

Cord The fabric or steel strands forming the reinforced structure in the tire.

Cord Separation The parting of rubber compound from the cord.

Cord Strain Tension of any given cord or cords in the tire under specific load and inflation.

Corrosion The oxidation of steel cords and/or rim components.

Cracks Any parting within the rubber that does not extend to or through the cord material.

Cross Ply Sometimes used to refer to a bias ply tire.

Crown Section between the shoulders of a tire. See TREAD.

Crown Radius The measurement of the curvature of a tire tread between the shoulders of the tire. Expressed as a percentage, it indicates the relative flatness of the tire tread area.

Crown Width The distance from shoulder to shoulder measured along the buffed contour. See TREAD WIDTH.

Cure The process of vulcanization of rubber by applying heat and pressure over a period of time. Also see CHEMICAL CURE.

Cure Rate The speed at which a compound cures and develops its physical properties.

Cure Rate Factor (CFR) Cure Rate Factor, used in curing calculations.

Cure Time The length of time established to achieve a desired cure state.

Cushion Gum (Bonding Gum) A tacky, rubber compound used for adhesion of tread rubber, under-tread repair, build-up of other repairs, or on the bottom of some repair units. See PRECURED TREAD CUSHION GUM.

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Delamination A somewhat smooth separation between layers of material.

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Edge Lifting A separation of the outer edge of the tread from the casing’s shoulder.

Extruder A machine that shapes a rubber compound, by the process of extruding, into a usable, heated form (example: strip of die size).

Extruder Gun A small hand-held portable extruder used for spot application of heated rubber to the casing.

Extruding Process of forming uncured rubber compound into a given shape by passing through an extruder.

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Fabric Fatigue Fabric degradation and resultant loss of tire cord strength due to repeated flexing, accentuated by overloading and/or under-inflation.

Fast-Cure Gum Rubber Compound which cures at a faster rate than retread rubber and is tested at 260F (127C).

Feathering Reduction in thickness to allow a smooth transition to match the contour of the adjacent material.

Filler Plug A rubber compound that fills the cavity of an injury in a tire.

Filler Gum (Filling Stock, Repair Gum) A uncured rubber compound (usually fast-curing) used to fill in low spots or repairs on a casing.

Finished Buff That surface produced by buffing, rasping, or cutting as standardized by the Rubber Manufacturers Association’s Shop Bulletin No. 29 "Standard Buffing Textures-Retreading and Repairing."

Flex Area Circumferential area in a tire where maximum bending or flexing occurs.

Flex Break A circumferential break usually parallel to the beads in the mid-sidewall area.

Flex Cure Proprietary system using uncured tread rubber and flexible rubber molds to produce a retread in a pressure curing chamber.

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Gauge Thickness, usually expressed in 1/32" for tread rubber or by millimeters for repair gums.

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Heat Cure Repair Repair unit activated by heat and pressure.

Holland Cloth A completely filled, woven fabric with a smooth finish on both sides, used to separate rubber from adjacent materials.

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Impact Break In a bias tire, a break usually in the shape of an X, Y, or star, which can be seen from inside of the tire. In a radial tire, a break usually in the shape of an "I", which can be seen from outside of the tire.

Inflation Pressure The minimum cold tire inflation pressure required for specific load and speed conditions.

Injury (Injuries) Any damage caused by a penetrating object of severe scuff or impact.

Injury Size Widest opening in the cord body after skiving and buffing.

Innerliner/Liner The layer (s) forming the inside surface of a tubeless tire that contains the inflating medium within the tire.

Innerliner Repair Material A special repair material for repair of innerliners.

Innerliner Sealant Liquid or semi-solid material which is used to coat the innerliner.

Innertube (Tube) An airtight rubber membrane (bladder) placed inside the casing of a pneumatic tire to hold air.

International Tire and Rubber Association An association representing the tire retread and repair industry.

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Kettle Cure (Autoclave) A pressure and heat vessel used for vulcanizing rubber products under pressure.

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Lamination Separation between two or more layers of rubber caused by surface contamination in handling or processing uncured tread rubber.

Liner The tubeless tire inner surface used to retain the inflation medium. (See INNERLINER).

Load Range The term "load range" with a letter (example A, B, C, etc) in tire identification is used to identity a given size tire with its load and inflation limits when used in a specific type of service, as defined in the Tire and Rim Association, Inc., tables.

Load Rating The maximum load a tire is rated to carry for a given usage at a specified cold inflation pressure.

Local Service An application in which operation is limited to speeds not to exceed 55 mph for not more that 50 minutes in duration.

Low Profile A tire in which the ratio of cross-section height to section width  (80% or less) is lower than that of a conventional tire, resulting in a squatty appearance.

Low-Temperature Gum A rubber compound which cures at a faster rate than fast-cure gum, usually tested at 260 F (127 C) or 200 F (93 C).

Lubricant Something that lessens or prevents friction.

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Manufacturer …of a tire, the name of a company or wholly owned subsidiary making the tire.

Mold The heated cavity in which tires, retreads, and repairs are vulcanized. Includes the curing chamber, matrices, and adjusting devices.

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Nail Hole A penetration or puncture caused by a small object, not to exceed 1/4" in passenger tires and 3/8" in truck tires.

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Optimum Cure That state of cure at which the rubber compound exhibits the most satisfactory physical properties.

Outside Diameter Measurement of a tire when it is inflated and mounted on a rim. (O. D.)

Overall Diameter The length of a straight line beginning at the buffed surface through the center of a tire to the opposite outside surface, commonly used to size in inflated buffed tire; usually measured with a diameter type (pi) tape.

Overall Width The maximum cross-sectional width of a tire, including protective or decorative ribs.

Oxidation The reaction of oxygen with rubber or steel, usually evidenced by a change in the appearance (discoloration) of the surface, a change in physical properties, or wire rust.

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Patch A specially designed unit made of fabric and/or rubber that is applied to a tire or tube to restore tire and/or tube integrity.

Patch-Plug Combination of a repair unit and a repair plug.

Penetration Damage to a tire caused by a piercing object not going completely through casing.

Perforation Damage completely through tire caused by piercing object.

Ply A layer of rubber-coated parallel cords.

Ply Adhesion Strength of bonding between adjacent plies, usually expressed as the force required to separate them.

Ply Rating An indication of tire casing strength and load-carrying capacity, expressed as numbers, letters, and/or symbols; does not necessarily represent the number of cord plies in the tire.

Ply Separation The loss of adhesion between adjacent plies.

Pounds per Square Inch (psi) A measurement of pressure. 1 psi = 6.895 kPa or 1 kPa = 0.1450 psi.

Precured Tread Cushion Gum A tacky rubber compound used to bond the precured tread to the prepared surface.

Puncture Repair An off-the-wheel repair of any injury caused by a penetrating object. (Note: The type of repair is determined by size and depth of injury.)

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Radial Cracking Cracking, usually in or near the sidewall area, resulting from under inflation. (Cracks are perpendicular to the bead.)

Radial Ply A tire with cords running radially from bead to bead (90 to centerline of the tire.)

Radial Split/Break A break in the sidewall perpendicular to the beads that have not damaged the cord.

Radial Tire A tire construction in which the body ply cords are placed straight across the tire from bead to bead; the belt plies run nearly circumferentially around the tire, under the tread, and constrict the radial ply cords.

Ream To clean an injury or hole prior to repair.

Reinforcement Material, usually rubber and fabric, vulcanized to the tire to add strength to the tire cord body at an injury.

Reinforcement Repair Repairs made to the bias casing when an injury has extended through 25% but less than 75% of the tire body, requiring both hole-filling material and reinforcing the repair unit.

Repair The act of partially perforating a bias tire through the outer rubber into the fabric, which allows trapped air or moisture to escape without loss of tire air-retention ability.

Repair Gum A soft, tacky, usually fast-curing rubber compound used in tire repairing; available in sheet, strip, and rope form.

Repair Material Specifically designed material (repair units, repair gums, cements, etc.) used during the repair process of a tire or tube.

Repair Plug A rubber compound that fills the cavity of an injury in a tire.

Repair Sealant Liquid or semi-solid materials used to cover the over buffed area around repair units.

Repair Unit (Patch) A specially designed unit made of fabric and/or rubber that is applied to a tire or tube to restore tire and/or tube integrity.

Repaired Tire Any tire with punctures, cuts, or other types of injuries that have been reconditioned to restore strength and flexibility for additional safe service. See common repair types: NAIL HOLE REPAIR, REINFORCEMENT REPAIR, SECTION REPAIR, SPOT REPAIR.

Retreaded Tire A casing to which new tread rubber has been vulcanized to the prepared surface to extend the usable life of the tire.

Retread Separation A separation between the tread rubber and the buffed tire casing.

Reversion Deterioration of a rubber compound's physical properties due to excessive heating.

Rim Supports, usually metal, for a tire and tube assembly on which the tire beads are seated.

Rim Diameter The nominal diameter of the rim corresponding to the tire bead heel.

Rim Flange The part of the rim that supports the bead area above the heel and resists lateral internal pressure.

Rope Rubber Repair bum supplied in continuous cylindrical form to be used in a hand-held extruder, generally for tire repairing.

Rubber Buffings Suggested: Loosened rubber particles from buffing the tire.

Rubber Cement An adhesive rubber compound usually dissolved in solvent used to provide building tack and cured adhesion. May be brushed or sprayed on the buffed surface. Some cement may be water-based.

Rubber Manufacturers Association (RMA) The North American trade association of finished rubber and rubber-related manufactures.

Run Flat Tire damage resulting from operating with low or no air pressure, sometimes identified by repetitive liner cracking or discoloration.

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Scorch Premature vulcanization of rubber caused by excessive heat during processing. Scorched compounds will not mold satisfactorily, nor develop satisfactory adhesive properties. May also be used to describe the reversion caused by excessive heat during the buffing or skiving process. See REVERSION.

Section Repair Repairs, other than nail holes, made to the casing when an injury has extended through 75% or more of the actual plies, or completely through the casing in the tread or sidewall areas. Some jurisdictions may have different limits.

Self-Vulcanization Vulcanization of rubber at room temperature or above, and activated by chemical agents without the application of heat from an outside source.

Separation Lack of adhesion between any adjacent materials in a tire. See BEAD SEPARATION, BELT SEPARATION, INNERLINER SEPARATION, PLY SEPARATION, RETREAD SEPARATION, and TREAD SEPARATION.

Shoulder The outer tread edge and upper sidewall area of the tire. Transitional area between the tread and sidewall (including the outer edge of the tread and uppermost sidewall area of the tire); includes   the outer edges of the belts in radial tires.

Shoulder Radius (Buffed) The buffed contour as applied to the shoulder area of the tire.

Sidewall That portion of a tire between the tread and bead area.

Sidewall Rubber A non-structural element designed to protect the body ply from contact with damaging objects or weathering.

Sidewall Separation A separation of the rubber compounds in the sidewall.

Skid Depth (Tread Depth) The distance measured from the tread surface to the bottom of the grooves in a tire.

Skive (Skiving) The removal of material prior to making a repair.

Solvent (Rubber Solvent) A liquid, which will soften and dissolve uncured rubber, dilute cement, and increase the tackiness of uncured rubber surfaces.

Specification Written requirements for process or materials.

Splice The junction formed by joining the two ends of a tire component.

Spot Repair The replacement of rubber in an injury that penetrates less than 25% of the body plies.

Spotter (Spot Press) A small heat-vulcanizing unit used in repairing tires and tubes.

Spreader Multi-arm device that spreads the beads of a tire.

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Tire Association of North America (TANA) TANA is a Reston, Virginia-based trade group representing all sectors of the North American replacement tire market. www.tana.net

Template
(Buffing Template)
A pattern used as a guide in repairing and retreading tires. In repairing, it serves to outline the area to be buffed inside the casing. In retreading, it is used to determine the correct contour of the buffed casing.

Tensile Strength The force expressed in pounds per square inch (or kilograms per square centimeter), required to break a piece of rubber by stretching.

Texture That surface produced by buffing, rasping, or cutting as standardized by the Rubber Manufacturers Association’s Shop Bulletin No. 29 "Standard Buffing Textures-Retreading and Repairing."

Tire Load-bearing ground-contacting circumferential attachment to a vehicle wheel.

Tire and Rim Association, Inc. Industrial association of tire and rim manufactures. Provides technical tire and rim standards. The Tire & Rim Association determines standard tire and rim dimensions and combinations of loads and inflations recommended for the best service. Information is published in yearly editions of the Tire & Rim Association Yearbook.

Tire Puncture A penetration by a foreign object through the tire body.

Tread That portion of a tire that comes in contact with the road.

Tread Depth (Skid Depth) The distance measured from the tread surface to the bottom of the grooves in a tire.

Tread Radius A measure of tread surface curvature from shoulder to shoulder.

Tread Separation A separation of the tread from the body of a tire.

Tread Width The distance from tread edge to tread edge on a tire measure along the contour of the tread surface.

Tubeless A pneumatic tire that requires an innertube for air retention.

Tube-Type A pneumatic tire that does not require an innertube for air retenion.

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Under-inflation A tire having less than recommended air pressure for the load being carried. A tire with this condition may build up excessive  heat that may be dangerous and could result in sudden tire destruction.

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Vulcanization A chemical reaction that takes place under appropriate time, temperature, and pressure.

Vulcanizing Cement A cement containing additives to cure under heat. See CHEMICAL VULCANIZING CEMENT for chemical curing.

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Zipper Rupture Circumferential rupture of sidewall body cables.

  
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